|작성자 : 임두빈||작성일 : 2014-02-28 22:36:26||조회수 : 519|
|국가 : 콜롬비아||언어 : 영어|
|분야 : 스마트 시티|
|자료설명 : 콜롬비아 생태적 스마트 전자도시 패러다임 발전을 위한 연구|
|저자 : 고경호|
|저자소개 : 고경호 박사
|목차 : 1. Introduction
• 3.1 The Background between Colombia and South Korea
• 3.2 Overview of Colombia
• 3.3 Overview of South Korea
• 5.1 A Study of Existing Cases-Relatedness and Nothingness
• 5.2 Reality and Real-Test Bed for Ecological Smart City in Colombia
• 5.3 The Perspective of Study
• 5.2 The Process of Verification
Where the ghosts of the ancient times and prophesy of the future spinning and circulating in the present days, men with machetes are going through the mythical jungles looking for the edenic valley followed by beautiful yet bare-footed women riding burros. Among them, delightful laughs are thriving through in spite of pervading cruel realities. Their passions are even more vigorous than the zestful colors of their new world.
I was 16 years old boy living on the opposite side of the planet. And that was Colombia I wanted to believe after a week of sleepless nights reading through One Hundred Years of Solitude. The fantasies were real to me, and I wanted to become a part of that magical world.
That hope has never slipped away while I was studying abroad in English-speaking countries for many years after I left South Korea. My best friend was from Medellín while I was studying painting in England. When I was getting my master’s degree in architecture in the US, there was a classmate from Bogotá, who was also getting full scholarship like me. Her name was Liliana Garcia, niece of Gabriel Garcia Marquez. Considering that I met them in 90’s, they were providing me with some “serious and realistic” pieces of information about Colombia. However, instead of being demoralized, the first thing I did was to register Spanish courses when I was working at an architecture company in California preparing my visit to Colombia.
After I worked on the ecological village projects in Costa Rica and Guatemala, I decided to travel South America. Of course, the first destination was Colombia. While I was being soaked with the charm of beautiful colonial villages in Colombia, I also noticed that Colombia is moving fast to its new era. The government of Colombia has been showing the strong attention to the digital urban development in South Korea for the last two years. South Korea was the first country in the world, which started the digital urbanism projects (called Ubiquitous City) since 2002. The government and private sectors from South Korea have been very enthusiastic about collaborating with Colombia. They have been visiting Colombia numerous times working on this project, and I came to involve with Daewoo Engineering & Construction and LG CNS for the smart traffic system in Pasto and other intelligent city project in Colombia.
Those chances served me as an eye-opener. While I was working between South Koreans and Colombian counterparts, I concluded that Colombia needs to bring about its own prototype before developing the digital intelligent urban projects in Colombia. From my observation, it can be the only way to keep the magic imbedded in the lives here while cities can be evolved. I truly believe that it is the responsibility of the higher academic institutions that should investigate the topic and help people enlightened before few can manipulate and set up their own rules.
In recent years, cities in the world have undergone unprecedented urban challenges, such as the extreme bipolarization of wealth and poverty, ever-drastically growing urban population, inadequate supply of housing, massive waste production and its disposal, air and water pollution, and the spread of transmissible diseases. Many cities are in or expanding into areas prone to earthquakes, floods and other natural disasters. No wonder there is a growing interest in long-term sustainable and ecological systems, efficient urban mobility, smart disaster prevention systems and rebuilding social support systems.
And last but not least, the diffusion of virtual space into everyday urban lives has not only blurred the boundaries, it also suggests a new direction, i.e., the convergence between physical and virtual space. The benefit of the convergence is to overcome the limit of the existing physical conditions through optimization and integration. Ever since Mark Weiser initiated “Ubiquitous Computing” concept at Xerox PARC in 1988, South Korea has completed 10 Ubiquitous cities as of 2010 under this direction. Then Japan, United Kingdom, Germany, Hong Kong, the US and Brazil are exploring this new direction to deal with their urban challenges under name of Smart City or Intelligent City.
As the word ‘ubiquitous’ hints, “Ubiquitous City” is a smart city in which information flows as if water or air among all urban structures for the optimum and flawless management, and its residents have access to any and all services they need from anywhere and at any time. Using Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) technology, sensors are placed on all urban structures, house gadgets, roads, water supply systems, parks, hospitals, offices and automobiles to collect information and transmit them over Wireless Broadband network (WiBro or WiMAX). Then the virtual world can “aware” every objects in the physical world and ready to interact and communicate with people through the personal mobile device. This all-pervasive information network allows for ubiquitous access to such essential services as transportation, education, healthcare, crime prevention and fire safety services from anywhere and at any time.
‘The movement has already paid off handsomely for the cities in South Korea; they improved the quality of welfare of the citizens; many of urban problems can be efficiently resolved by the integrated system platforms; they could even successfully foster the growth of related green industries.’ 
3.1 The Background between Colombia and South Korea
‘Colombia and Korea established diplomatic relations on March 10th, 1962 and permanent diplomatic representation at an ambassadorial level since 1973. Moreover, Colombia is known as the only country from the region that participated in the Korean War and has been supporting Korea’s position in the international stage. Under these circumstances, both countries have experienced an amicable relationship, even more deepened by the Cultural Agreement, Science and Technology Cooperation, and Trade Agreement which entered into force on December 10th, 1986. As Colombia and Korea have been devoted to promote their relations, both countries also developed economic cooperation by inviting technical and economic planning trainees and sending communication experts and mineral resource explorers. Furthermore, Korea assisted the Colombian Electronic Communication Institute from1989 to 1993 and is supporting a national telecommunication project.’ 
Thanks to the increasing importance of economic and political ties, Colombian and Korean authorities held meetings in recent years to find ways to build up our current relationships, including the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between Colombia and South Korea.
3.2 Overview of Colombia
‘With a population of 45 million people, Colombia is the third most populous country in Latin America, after Brazil and Mexico. Colombia’s economy is the fifth largest economy in Latin America. In the mean time, Colombia’s relatively modest economic performance partly reflects the effects of a deep financial crisis in 1998-99, which was preceded by a rapid expansion of domestic demand financed by private capital inflows, and a subsequent sharp deterioration in external financing conditions. However, in the aftermath of the 1998-99 crisis, Colombia embarked on fiscal reform, adopted a flexible exchange rate regime, and strengthened financial supervision and regulation. These efforts have contributed significantly to the recent improvement in macroeconomic and prudential indicators in the financial sector. Moreover in the recent years, Colombia’s economy has stabilized benefitting from prudent fiscal management and rising commodity prices.’  ‘At the end of 2009, the Gross Domestic Product growth rate of Colombia was 230,844 million, which is the 35th largest in the world.’ 
3.3 Overview of South Korea
South Korea was considered an underdeveloped agrarian country up until the 1960s. However after adopting an export-oriented industrialization policy, it achieved outstanding economic performance and transformed into an industrialized country within a short period of time. ‘In 2009, Korea’s Gross Domestic Product at current prices was US$ 832,512 million, which made it the 15th largest in the world that year.’ 
South Korea has emerged as the most modern country in terms of the digital urbanism. With the world’s 26th largest population (48,500,000) and the 2nd most populous metropolitan area (20,550,000) in its very compact territory, which is 1/11 to the territory of Colombia (South Korea: 100,210 km2, Colombia: 1,141,748 km2), South Korea has explored new solutions to the urban problems with its advanced digital technologies.
While I understand that the urban areas in Colombia have to face the challenges from ever-rapidly growing urban population, I am an ardent supporter for the efforts of Colombians to keep the historical heritages. Mirthfully, the ubiquitous digital urban development can be one of the most relevant solutions to those somewhat conflicting issues. It maximizes the efficiency of the infrastructure and creates new contents whereas restraining overdevelopment and pollutions, which are possible through the flow of information among urban infrastructures, homes and individuals by bringing balance back to our cities and lives.
Thus the object of the investigation will start from defining the ubiquitous digital urban technologies though the existing cases. Then the investigation will make the test bed with various urban areas in Colombia in order to test the design intervention embedded with cutting-edge digital technologies. The process will be focused on how to bring the balance back between rather conflicting-looking challenges, such as the traditional values and high-tech, the rich and the poor, preservation of energy and efficient mobility, green environment and development, etc.
The investigation will be carried out at the Colombian institution under the collaboration of academic and government institutions from South Korea, where they’ve been investigating the topic for years sponsored by the government of South Korea. In order to set up the new urban paradigm shaped by the application of design and ubiquitous technology, which will generate the ecological urban space in Colombia while enhancing the quality its heritages, it is essential to full together different efforts among different countries, different institutions, different disciplines.
The new urban paradigm will not only add an important asset to prepare for the cities of future in Colombia, but it will also help to accomplish the green growth of the planet through achieving economic growth in harmony with various urban issues harnessing technological advances.
4.1 A Study of Existing Cases-Relatedness and Nothingness
In order to set up the prototype of the digital urbanism in Colombia, it is inevitable to look at the existing cases of digital urban development in South Korea, Japan, Hong Kong, Dubai, the US and other European countries. Among those countries, South Korea has developed the most remarkable projects with the longest history (since 2002).
I have been contacting to a couple of the prestigious universities, who are being sponsored by the government of South Korea for the Ubiquitous Ecological Urbanism Project (U-Eco City Project). One is Sungkyunkwan University (owned by Samsung group), and the other one is national KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technologies). They have been showing keen interests in the alliance with higher academic institutions in Colombia.
With their collaboration, I would like to introduce the most successful current ubiquitous urban design implementations, such as the smart urban mobility and logistics, digital landscape, energy preservation systems, home RFID technology applications, the digital processing systems at government, banking and health facilities, digital street security and disaster prevention systems, waste disposal and recycling systems.
Examples; It must be worth studying how ubiquitous technology and its urban design implementation could help South Korea to become the world second in trash recycling (72%) following Germany (75%) in such a short time. The recycling system is linked to the circuit of the main control center, where they oversee the disaster prevention systems, the traffics, the security of streets and the public space.
‘With help of RFID technology, home applications can be controlled virtually, and those applications can start “aware” the objects in the physical world.’  Since the sensors and cameras at home can detect the number and the movement of residents, the lights and temperature are controlled to optimize the comforts and to save the energy more efficiently. The refrigerator will tell you to use meat inside before the expiration date, and it will call the grocery store for the delivery once you run out of milk. The intrusion of buglers, any property damage, fire or other disasters detected by sensors or camera will automatically be transmitted to the police, the hospital, the fire station and the city control center.
Following the introduction, there must be the process of through examinations of the cases at the academic institution in Colombia if the case and each application can be valid in Colombia. With the help of other colleagues, students will be exposed to the existing digital urban development cases then will be encouraged to analyze and refine the most necessary parts through observation. Students and faculty will validate the result insightfully under the collaboration of the experts from different disciplines. In the process, the disparity and similarity in urban conditions, climates, economic factors, cultural values, geographic elements, historical heritages and political issues will be comprehensively considered.
4.2 Test Bed for Ecological Smart City in Colombia
The case studies in the previous phase will lead to the test bed experiment. The urban areas fastidiously selected will become the platform, which should allow for rigorous, transparent and replicable testing before the extensive design and technology implementation.
Having said that, the most archetypal yet discrete areas in Colombia should be meticulously delved for the competent test bed candidates. This process will include but not limited to; the examination of historical heritage, the current urban policy and phenomena, Patrimonio Cultural, the urban mobility, the geographical relations to the distribution of wealth as well as its hidden logic and background. Appropriate data and history behind the urban policies and phenomena in Colombia will be collected to build the data base in order to make the quintessential test bed in line with the past and the present.
Among all the small and big candidates, for instance, San Juan de Girón in Santander seems to have appropriate potentials. Founded in 1631, it has currently about 150,531 residents. The dazzling historical village has many remarkable colonial buildings and narrow cobble-stoned streets. It is located within the metropolitan proximity of Bucaramanga (9Km), and Bucaramanga has become the second city in the Latin America to launch the wireless broadband system (WiMAX), which is essential to set up digital urbanism.
Girón still carries on its amiable magical charm, but it is about to face somewhat discordant challenges, such as development and sustainment. It certainly does not want to be the “museum” of colonial buildings, but it should also evade the allurement of the commercialism as well. Those old buildings have to keep up the appeals of the contemporary while maintaining their original beauty. Girón has to solve the problem of parking, urban mobility, garbage disposal and recycling within its very limited space. While its own population is growing rapidly, the systems of education and health heavily depend upon Bucaramanga. The river in front of the village is getting seriously polluted by residential sewage, and it causes constant flood during rainy seasons. The area is running short of its energy while it needs to preserve the nearby wetlands, which supplies the water and could provide eco-tourism.
Further research should be carried out in order to design ecological ubiquitous urban platform. However, the following examples can be considered in the process but not limited:
1. Residential Space
A. Design Intervention to Exiting Housing Space to Integrate Smart Utilities for Living, Education, Security, Energy Management, Entertainment with High-tech
B. Designing RFID Sensor Embedded Constructional Material and Automation of Housing Construction
C. Designing Ecological Urban Farm Interacts Home Applications and Community Applications
D. Designing Personal Mobile Device Protocols to Communicate with Home Applications and Community Applications
2. Public Space
A. Designing Ecological Ubiquitous Public Parking Space and Management System
B. Digital Design Intervention to Sewage Treatment, Garbage Disposal and Recycling, Water Quality Control and Flood Prevention Systems
C. Designing Digital Intelligent Street and Traffic System for the Efficient Urban Mobility, Safety and Security using street poles
D. Designing Devices to Improve Democracy Through the Flow of Information, e.g., Two-way media poles
E. Designing Public Utilities in Urban Landscape to Interact with Personal Mobile Device
In the test bed, those issues will be examined to be paired with existing applications or with coming applications. Then those issues and applications should be redefined and reallocated in order to optimize the efficiency. For instance, the solutions of the flood, sewage control, parking and security can be designed as one integrated platform to interact with personal devices.
In the end, every solution should be integrated into one platform so that the digital network can exchange and circulate every piece of information and even communicate personally so that the entire home and urban site can be controlled more efficiently and ecologically.
4.3 The Perspective of Study
The purpose of setting up the study is not only about combining digital technology with construction technologies. How the technology can improve democracy? Can it diminish the imbalance and disparity of the wealth? Can it enhance the magical charm of the country instead of demolition? More important, are there more to be accomplished through the urban design embedded with technologies? These are not the questions towards the technology itself. There is no evil or virtue in the technology itself. Only the strong will in the design can make the difference. The quintessence is to come up with new ideas how to harness cutting-edge technologies to serve the new urban scheme.
There is a device called Digital Media Poles in the bustling streets of Seoul, South Korea. Those approx. 5 meter-heighted poles are covered with LED touch screen and two-way interactive digital media devices. The devices not only provide useful information to the citizens, such as news (national and local district), maps, weather, traffic, etc. They can even upload and publish their inputs through their mobile phone using Bluetooth technology.
I believe that that project is a fair example the urban design embedded with technologies intervened the urban landscape of Seoul. Basically the Digital Pole is just a 5 meter-heighted giant “smart phone”. However, the geographical location and the easy interface brought an access to everyone passes by. The project initially was set up to connect the citizens with other urban infrastructures. Then the citizens have started developing other usages during uploading and downloading the devices. Some agendas have started be posted, and people can cast vote. No doubt this greatly contributes to the improvement of direct democracy. People have started creating the contents, and the device became the convergence of digital and physical space.
That should be the perspective of the study. Under the guide of the faculty, students will be encouraged to utilize digital media. The observation and analysis of case should be encouraged to use digital media. With help of digital media, they can combine and juxtapose different urban phenomena. The test bed experiment and verification should also be carried out digitally. The validity will be verified through digital simulation. The students will be encouraged to construct digital networks in order to create digital citizenship so that they can measure the impact from their test beds. This is not only to overcome the physical limits, but also to generate digital thinking. The process will become the object itself for many of them though expanding their scopes of design area. This perspective will create new and alternative contents, which will enrich the urban lives in the era of digital.
4.4 The Process of Verification
The vigorous investigation of the test bed should be completed by the cross-examination.
After carrying out Ubiquitous Urban Development for the last 10 years in South Korea, they realized that they needed collateral efforts to create new urban paradigms so that they developed U-City department as postgraduate level at universities in South Korea. They scouted professors and students from architecture, information technology, civil engineering, digital media, urban designing, etc.
The cross-examination will be carried out through the alliance and invitation to different disciplines, such as civil engineering, Information and communication technologies, urban anthropology, etc. On top of that, the process will be propelled by the alliance of U-City departments from those two Korean institutes, Sungkyunkwan University and Korea Advance Institute of Science and Technologies under the mutual understanding with the institute in Colombia.
Under the guide of the faculty, students will be grouped and paired with the groups from South Korea. They will create learn from each other through the collaboration and also create competition. During the course of the collaboration and competition, students and faculties will communicate through various digital media for the verification of the test beds.
Once the most exquisite and discreet test bed and its observation is selected, the field research should be carried out through visiting each other. Depending on the process of the investigation, I am planning to invite several private and government sectors. (I have to think more about the field research part.)
5. Conclusion: Delivering Strange and Wonderful
The ultimate goal of the investigation is to provide the most pleasant and enjoyable life space to the citizens of Colombia while keeping and enhancing its transcendental magic embedded.
In other words, digital technology integrated to new urban design schemes should embrace the cultural and ecological heritage of Colombia so that cultural heritage and the balance of surrounding ecology can enhance the quality of lives urban area instead of being wiped out for the sake of development. In many developing countries in the world have lost those most valuable assets while industrialization. However the mistake does not have to be repeated in Colombia thanks to the new paradigm.
Now Colombia can build its new paradigm of the future under the effort of global alliance. Eventually Colombia should share insights, technologies and experience through the accomplishment of its new urban paradigm, and I hope that this investigation can work as the bridge to bring all the wisdom and strengths to accelerate the bright future for all.
Ministry of Land, Transport & Maritime Affair, S. Korea, "U-City for Green Growth” p.14 U-City, Feb. 2010.
Soul National University, "Feasibility Study" Korea-Colombia FTA, August. 2009.
Soul National University, "Feasibility Study" Korea-Colombia FTA, August. 2009.
World Bank, "World Development Indicators database" The World Bank, September. 2010.
Samsung SDS, "South Korea’s Home of the Future" AFP, Mar. 2007.
Modified from Sung Kim “Intelligent Urban Space and Management” U-Eco City Publication, pp. 17-23, July, 2010
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